The Industrial Revolution
 

During the next week you will be working together to create a class essay about the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the social and political structure of England during the 19th century. The essay must be held together by a clear thesis statement which answers the following overall question:

The Enlightenment philosophes had argued that the application of science and reason would lead to a better society for all. Did the extraordinary changes wrought by the Industrial Revolution represent progress? If so, how was progress achieved? (Decide as a group whether your definition of progress will be grounded in a classical liberal, radical liberal or socialist political philosophy.)

Presentation Ground Rules

I. Thesis

II. Origins of the Industrial Revolution (3) Avery W-G.; Kofi W. ; Alton M.

III. What Happened During the Industrial Revolution?

A. Industrial Technology (4)  John McG.; Ehren D.; Parker P.


B. The Social Effects of Industry (6)  Chase B.; James S.; Quinn; John M.

1.      The Lives of Workers

2.      Manchester: The First Industrial City: Political Activism to 1850

3.      Victorian London: Political Activism to 1880

IV. Cultural Responses (3)  Ben L.; Daniel De L.

A. Literary

1.      The Economics of Authorship

2.      Social Protest in Literature

3.      Mass Production and Popular Culture

B. Realism in Art

V. Conclusion

You will be given a paragraph test on this unit at the end of next week: here are the questions:

Test Questions:

  1. What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution in England?
  2. How did innovations in technology and business practice revolutionize the production and marketing of goods? How were these innovations financed?
  3. What impact did the new economy have on the lives (job security, work conditions, housing, health) of English workers? Did Adam Smith's "invisible hand" create a just society?
  4. How did England avoid a workers' revolution? What did workers do to exert pressure on the factory owners and the government in order that have their grievances heard? What political and legislative changes resulted from this debate?
  5. How was the ideological debate about the problem of urban poverty reflected in the popular culture of late 19thc.  England? 

Overview:

Victorian Technology (BBC History)
History Trail: Industry and Invention (BBC History)
Victorian Social History: An Overview (Victorian Web) 
Victorian Political History: An Overview (Victorian Web)
Encyclopedia of British History (Spartacus)
Mr. Woodall's Notes (Open Door)
 

Map-->"Industrial England:  Early 19c" 
Map-->"Industrialization in Western Europe:  1850"

I. Origins of the Industrial Revolution  

What were the causes of the Industrial Revolution in England? 

Overview:

History of the Industrial Revolution (History World)
The Workshop of the World (BBC History)
Mr. Woodall's Notes (Open Door)
The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England (Kreis Lecture)

The Day the World Took Off (Cambridge)

A. The Agricultural Revolution of the 17th-18th Centuries 

The Agricultural Revolution in England (BBC History)
The Agricultural Revolution (Open Door)
European Farming from the Middle Ages to 1800 (History Link) 

The Potato Revolution
Accounts of the "Potato Revolution" 1695 - 1845 
Jethro Tull (1674-1741)

Field Rotation
Charles "Turnip" Townshend (1674-1738)

Animal Breeding  
Robert Bakewell (1725-1795)

Enclosure   
Enclosure Movement

B. Population Growth 

A History Of English Population
Malthus' "Essay on Population" 1798, (analysis)

C. The Power Crisis 

The Search for New Power Sources (Open Door) 
An Early Energy Crisis and Its Consequences (Derkeiler.com)

D. Capital 

Eric Hobsbawm on "Why England?" Notes from Chapters 1 and 2 of Industry and Empire (1966)

Commercial Origins of the Industrial Revolution (Halsall)
The Commercial Revolution (Swarthmore)
Mr. Woodall's Notes (Open Door)
Capital (Mantagna)
Adam Smith's Laissez-Faire Policies (Victorian Web)

Bank of England (History)

Capital from Slave Trade Profits (The Williams Thesis)
Was Slavery the Engine of Economic Growth? (Digital History)
Liverpool and the Slave Trade (PBS)

 

II. What Happened During the Industrial Revolution? 

Industrial Technology 

How did innovations in technology and business practice revolutionize the production and marketing of goods? How were these innovations financed?

The Workshop of the World (BBC History) 
Victorian Technology (BBC History)

Chronology of the Development of Steam Power (Open Door)

Making the Modern World
Albert Brunel: The Practical Prophet of Technological Innovation (BBC History) 

1. Coal Mining and Textiles 

The Textile Industry Before Industrialization (Open Door)
Thomas Newcomen, (1664-1729)  The Newcomen Engine (Wikipedia) (animation)
James Hargreaves (c.1720-1778) The Cotton-Spinning Jenny  (animation)
John Kay, (1704- 1779) (animationThe Flying Shuttle
James Watt, (1736-1819) The Improved Steam Engine (Wikipedia) (animation)
Matthew Boulton, (1728-1809) financier of Watt's Steam Engine
Richard Arkwright, (1732-1792) the Spinning Jenny and the Spinning Frame (Wikipedia) (animation) (History Channel Video)

History of Coal Mining in England (Wikipedia)
British History: The Textile Industry (Spartacus)

The Spinning Mill (Animation) (BBC History)
The Beam Engine (Animation) (BBC History) 
The Winding Gear (Animation) (BBC History)

2. Iron Ore 

The Blast Furnace (Animation) (BBC History)
Coke Blast Furnace (Wikipedia) 

3. Bridges 

The Iron Bridge (BBC History)
The Construction of the Iron Bridge (Animation) (BBC History) 
The Beam Engine (Animation) (BBC History) 
The Winding Gear (Animation) (BBC History)   

4. Railroads  

The Evolution of the Locomotive: Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) and George Stephenson (Spartacus) (Animation) (Wikipedia) (BBC History

5. Steam Ships 

Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) The Great Western 
The Paddle Steamer (Animation) (BBC History) 

6. Capital 

Capitalism (Victorian Web)

Commercial Origins of the Industrial Revolution (Halsall)

Capital (Mantagna)

Capitalism (Victorian Web)
Victorian Economics (Overview) (Victorian Web)

Capital from Slave Trade Profits (The Williams Thesis)

Was Slavery the Engine of Economic Growth? (Digital History)

Liverpool and the Slave Trade (PBS)

 

 

B. The Social Effects of Industry


What impact did the new economy have on the lives (job security, work conditions, housing, health) of English workers? Did Adam Smith's "invisible hand" create a just society?

How did England avoid a workers' revolution? What did workers do to exert pressure on the factory owners and the government in order that have their grievances heard? What political and legislative changes resulted from this debate?

Victorian Social History: An Overview (Victorian Web) 
Victorian Political History: An Overview (Victorian Web)

The Workshop of the World (BBC History)
All Change in the Victorian Age (BBC History)
Beneath the Surface: A Country of Two Nations (BBC History) 
Social Class (Victorian Web)  

1. The Lives of Workers  

Leeds Woolen Workers' Petition, 1786 Attacking the effects of machinery. 
Leeds Cloth Merchants' Letter, 1791 Defending machinery. 
Life of the Industrial Worker in 19th-Century England (Victorian Web) 
The Physical Deterioration of the Textile Workers (Victorian Web) 
Observations on the Loss of Woollen Spinning, 1794, excerpts 
Child Labor in Cotton Factories 1807 (Peel Web)
Child Labor in the 19th Century
(Spartacus) 
Child Labor (Victorian Web)
Women and children in coal mines (Studymore)
Working Conditions (Open Door)
Urban Conditions (Open Door)
Chadwick, Report on Sanitary Conditions, 1842
Women Miners in the English Coal Pits, 1842    
Testimony Gathered By the Ashley Mines Commission (1842) 
Robinson, Lowell Mill Girls, 1834-1848 
Faraday, Observations on the Filth of the Thames, 1855

 

2. Manchester: The First Industrial City: Political Activism to 1850

Industrial Manchester in the Nineteenth Century
The History of Manchester (Spartacus) 
Griffin, Manchester in the 19th Century (British Museum)

Political Responses to 1850:

The Classical Liberal Position:

John Aikin on the Benefits and Costs of the Lancanshire Textile Factories, 1795

The Combination Act of 1800

Eric Hobsbawm on "Why England?" Notes from Chapters 1 and 2 of Industry and Empire (1966)

Ure, excerpts from The Philosophy of the Manufacturers (1835)
Andrew Ure on the Philosophy of the Factory System, 1835
Nassau Senior's opposition to Factory Regulation, 1837

G. R. Porter on the Progress of the Nation in Manufacturing and the Utility of the Free Exportation of Machinery, 1836
Kay-Shuttleworth, excerpts from The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Class in Manchester (1832) (full text)
Thomas Robert Malthus (Victorian Web) 
Malthus' "Essay on Population" (Victorian Web) 
Adam Smith's Laissez-Faire Policies (Victorian Web) 

The Factory System

A Factory Building in Manchester

Industrial Manchester from Kersal Moor  (Painting by William Wylde, 1851)

The Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale


The Socialist Position:

Friedrich Engels: Industrial Manchester, 1844, excerpts from The Condition of the Working-Class in England in 1844
Robert Owen on the Benefits of the Enlightened Management of Workers, 1813
Robert Owen on the social and moral implications of the factory system, 1815
Frederick Engels on the Domestic Textile Industry and Its Industrialization, 1845
John Francis Bray, Labour's Wrongs and Labour's Remedy, 1839

Marx and Engels, "Communist Manifesto" (1848)


Radical Liberal Reform to 1850:

Overview:

The Reform Acts of 1832, 1867 and 1884 (Victorian Web) 
Victorian Legislation: A Timeline (Victorian Web)

Resolutions of the Select Committee of the House of Commons on the Combination Laws, 21 May 1824

Debate in the House of Commons on the Combination Laws, 29 March 1825

T. B. Macaulay, Robert Southey's Colloquies on Society, 1830

T.B. Macaulay, "Reform that you may preserve" 2 March 1831

T. B. Macaulay's support of Factory Regulation, 1846

The Standard of Living Debate by Gerard M. Koot (pdf)

The Luddites:

The Luddites (Spartacus)
A Luddite Manifesto in Nottinghamshire, 1812
Report of Luddite activity in Yorkshire, 1812
Information of a Barnsley Weaver on the Luddites in the West Riding, 1812

Rage Against the Machine 200 years ago, the Luddites tried to stop technological progress


The Corn Laws and The Perterloo Massacre

Changing attitudes towards poverty after 1815 (Victorian Web)

Corn Laws (Victorian Web)
The Peterloo Massacre (1819)
The Peterloo Massacre (Spartacus)

Child Labor (Victorian Web) An article by Lord Ashley
Village life in the 1830s  (Web of English History)

The Anti-Corn Law League (Peel Web)


The First Reform Laws

1831 Reform Riots (Spartacus)

The Swing Riots (1830)

The Great Reform Act (In Our Time)

Taking Liberties - 1832 Reform Act

The 1832 Reform Act (topic page); Parliamentary Reform Act

British Parliamentary Reform in the 19th Century

Terms of the 1832 Reform Act (Victorian Web)
The 1832 Reform Act (Peel Web)


The Poor Laws and The Workhouses

The Poor Law Amendment Act (Peel Web)

Conditions in the Workhouse

The Workhouse in 18th and 19th c. England  

The Workhouse as a deterrent
Workhouse rules
The
Anti-Poor Law Movement (Victorian Web) 


The Chartist Movement

Chartism or The Chartist Movement (Victorian Web) 

Chartism in the House of Commons: Duncombe's speech introducing the Charter, 2 May 1842

The People's Charter of 1838 
Chartism (Spartacus) 
Chartism (Peel Web) 

Conditions in Manchester 1845 (Web of English History)

Macaulay, Opposition to universal suffrage  3 May 1842.

Debate on the Charter: Macaulay's speech, 5 May 1842

Repeal of the Corn Law 1846

Ten Hours Act of 1847

The Trade Union Movement (Spartacus)

 

 

3. Victorian London: Political Activism to 1880 

A Brief History of London (Victorian Web)
The Victorian Dictionary (Exploring Victorian London)
Victorian Occupations -- Life and Labor in the Victorian Period: An Overview (Victorian Web)  
Charles Booth's Descriptive Map of London (1889)

Monument and Dust: The Culture of Victorian London (UVA)
London Mortality Statistics (UVA) 
London Population Statistics
(UVA)

Political Responses to 1880:

The Reform Acts of 1832, 1867 and 1884 (Victorian Web)
Victorian Legislation: A Timeline (Victorian Web)

The Liberal Ideal:

The Crystal Palace International Exhibition of 1851 (Victorian Web)
Models of the Crystal Palace
(UVA) 
Laissez-faire and the Victorians (BBC History)
The Rise of the Victorian Middle Class (BBC History)

Smiles, Self-Help (1859) (See Chapter One); Thrift (1875)

The Reality Beneath the Surface:

Beneath the Surface: A Country of Two Nations (BBC History)

Dickens's London

Dickens' London Map

Henry Mayhew and the Cholera Epidemic in London in 1832 (Science Museum)

Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Conditions in Great Britain (1843)

Michael Faraday: Observations on the Filth of the Thames, (1855)

The Broad Street Pump Cholera Epidemic
London: A Pilgrimage by Dore and Jerrold (Spartacus) (Victorian Net) (Gilman ppt.) 
Mayhew, from London Labour and the London Poor (intro) (1862); "Prostitution in Victorian London" (1862); 'Those That Will Not Work,' see Spartacus and complete text: volume 1, volume 2, volume 3, volume 4 London Low-life - Beggars and Cheats- excerpts from Those That Will Not Work  (1862)
London's 'Great Stink' and Victorian Urban Planning (BBC History) 

Cholera and the Thames  

Dickens's London
 Booth, Inquiry into the life and labour of the people in London (1886) (Poverty Maps of London)

Radical Liberal Reform to1884:

Victorian Legislation: A Timeline (Victorian Web)
Terms of the 1832 Reform Act (Victorian Web)
The Reform Acts of 1832, 1867 and 1884 (Victorian Web)

Victorian Legislation: A Timeline (Victorian Web)

The Amalgamated Society of Engineers (1851) 

The 1867 Reform Act 

Gladstone Recognizes the right of workers to organize labor uinons

The 1884 Reform Act

The London Dock Strike of 1889

The Bitter Cry of Outcast London: an inquiry into the condition of the abject poor (1883)

Charlotte Mew's walk in Clerkenwell
The Trade Union Movement (Spartacus)

History of Reform in England (Studymore)

Social Science and the 1834 Poor Law (Studymore)

Revolutionary Currents:

Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto (1848)
Bloody Sunday (1887) (Spartacus) 
The London Dockers' Strike (1888) (Spartacus) 
The Matchgirls' Strike (1887) (Spartacus)

The Solution?

British Empire: An Introduction (Victorian Web)
Why did the British Empire expand so rapidly between 1870 and 1900? (Victorian Web)
Lenin on Imperialism, the Highest Phase of Capitalism (Sprago Web)

The Achievement  of  Liberal Reform (1906-1916)

 

III. Cultural Responses

How was the ideological debate about the problem of urban poverty reflected in the popular culture of late 19th c. England?

A. Literary

Victorian Web: Literature Overview 
Literary Definition of Realism (Victorian Web) 

1. Social Protest in Literature: 

John Jones, "The Cotton Mill," 1821 (A pro-factory poem)

Charles Babbage on Machinery and Employment, 1846 (On the economic benefits of factories)

Poets and the Industrial Revolution  How contemporary Romantic poets saw the Industrial Revolution.

Ernest Jones, "The Factory Town," 1847

Elizabeth Gaskell, from Mary Barton: A Tale of Manchester Life
Charles Dickens, from Hard Times, chapter 5 "The Key Note"; Charles Dickens: Hard Times, Chapter 2 
Dickens's London
Dickens' London Map

Charles Dickens, Bleak House: The Novel as Source Material  

London 1865 - The Dickens Project's Our Mutual Friend Site
A Description of Coketown from Charles Dickens' Hard Times
The Two Nations, from Benjamin Disraeli's Sybil
Thomas Carlyle: Signs of the Times: The "Mechanical Age"  
A Village Workhouse in 1830 from George Eliot, Scenes of Clerical Life: "Amos Barton" Chapter 2 (1857)

Michael Sadler, The Factory Girl's Last Day. 1832

Frances Trollope's Novel about a Factory Boy, 1840

Anthony Trollope, Michael Armstrong: Factory Boy  
Emile Zola, Germinal, 1885, extracts  

2. The Economics of Authorship (Victorian Web)

Breaking News: Renaissance Journalism and the Birth of the Newspaper” (NY Times 1-23-09)
Charles Dickens' Writings: Economic Contexts and Themes 
How Did Nineteenth-Century British and American Authors Get Paid? 
Dickens Wrote for Money!  
Revolutionary Pickwick: Modern Authorship, Mass Audience, and the Victorian Publishing Industry
Publishing in Parts, Periodicals and Dickens' Working Methods


3. Mass Production and Popular Culture:

Beneath the Surface: Social Reports as Primary Sources  (BBC History)
Sex, Drugs and Music Hall (BBC History)

Jack the Ripper Casebook (Ryder and Piper)

Penny Dreadfuls, Juvenile Crime, and Late-Victorian Moral Panic (Mimi Matthews)

Cheap and nasty: the horrid legacy of the penny dreadful (Guardian)

Victorian Detective Fiction (An Introduction)

The Prince of Sleuths: the Origin of Detective Fiction (Guardian) 

Early Detective Fiction (Pinterest)

Victorian Drug Use (Victorian Web) 

Opium in Victorian England (Historic UK)

Opium and the Expansion of Trade (British Library)

 

B. Art Styles in the Industrial 19th Century  

 

Images of the Industrial Revolution in England

Realism in Art: 

Realism (Smarthistory)
Realism (Artcyclopedia)
Literary Definition of Realism (Victorian Web)
Courbet, The Stonebreakers (1849)
Manet, Olympia (1865)
Degas, The Dance Class (1874)

 

Conservatism:

 

J.M.W. Turner, The "Fighting Temeraire" tugged to her Last Berth to be broken up (1838)
Rain, Steam and Speed -The Great North-Western Railway (1844)
Official Art: Ernest Meissonier and Hans von Marees, William Powell Frith

Gérôme, Pygmalion and Galatea 1890

Liberalism:

Darby, Iron Bridge at Coalbrookdale (1779)

Cruickshank, The British Beehive (1867)

Redgrave, The Sempstress 1846 (Commentary)
Tissot
, London Visitors 1874 
Manchester 1851

The Great Exhibition - a wonder of the Victorian world (BBC Radio)

The Creation of the Metropolis: The Great Exhibition of 1851; (Victorian Web)

Frith, The Railway Station (1862) (essay)

Art, Technology and Industry (History of Art)

Furnishings and Fashions (History of Art)

Art and Printing, Illustrated Magazines, Posters (History of Art)

Early Photography (History of Art)

Radical Liberalism:

Gustave Dore and Blanchard Jerrold, London: A Pilgrimage (1872); (Spartacus) (UVA) (Gilman ppt.) 

Fildes, Houseless and Hungry, The Graphic  (12th April, 1869)

Pierdon, "St. GilesThe Rookeries of London.(1850)

Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1888)

Manet, Olympia (1865); A Bar at the Folies Bergeres (1881-82)  (Getty essay)  (About the Folies Bergieres)

Renoir  The Luncheon of the Boating Party (1881)

Degas, Place de la Concorde or Viscount Lepic and his Daughters (1875)

Monet,  Saint-Lazare Station (1877)

Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergeres (1881-82); Olympia  (1875)

Socialism:

Social Criticism in the Arts: Realism in France: Millet and Daumier

Courbet, The Stonebreakers (1849)

Daumier, The Burden (1853); The Uprising  (1860);  The Third ClassCarriage  (1863)
Daumier, The Uprising, The Laundress, The Third-class Carriage, In the Omnibus, Passersby; So You were Hungry? That's no excuse!, Politicians

Millet, The Gleaners  (1857) ; The Walk to Work, Shepherdess with her flock