Hilfiker Outline: Urban Injustice

Hilfiker's argument: "the surround"

Is it possible to develop a non-racist conservative rebuttal to Hilfiker's argument?


  • US Industrial Revolution: Manufacturing, Railroads, Meat Packing
  • Population Boom in Northern Cities: European Immigrant Waves (Irish, German, Greek, Italian)
  • Immigrant Clusters in city centers include a trickle of blacks from the South
  • Heterogeneous Neighborhoods (No Mass Transit = Walking Cities)
  • Upward Mobility for European Immigrants (usually takes a generation)
  • Sharecropping and Segregation in the South: (Cotton: High Demand for Unskilled Labor)


  • Industrialized Northern Cities (Pull of Jobs)
  • Mechanization of Cotton Picking (Push)
  • Great Migration: 1.5-2 million (WWI to Depression)
  • 2nd Great Migration: 4-6 million (post-WWII)
  • Segregated, Over Crowded Housing, yet Vertical Integration:
  • African-American Cultural Heyday: Jazz, Harlem Renaissance, Chicago Blues, Penn. Ave. in Baltimore
  • Construction of Interestate Highway System
  • Federal Housing Administration Loans
  • White Flight from the City to the Suburbs


  • Continued US Manufacturing Boom
  • Civil Rights Movement: Ending Segregation; Gaining Political Franchise
  • Block Busting and Redlining
  • "War on Poverty" : Why did it fail?
  • Vietnam/Riots/Assassinations/ Moynihan Report:
  • Collapse of Liberal Consensus
  • White Flight to the Suburbs
  • Middle Class Black Flight to the Suburbs
  • Nixon and Welfare


  • Economic Globalization: Shipping, Highways, Automation, Fiber-optic Cable
  • Decline of Big Labor
  • Collapse of Blue Collar Job Base
  • Decline of Urban Tax Base: Schools, Police, Social Service, Infrastructure
  • Service Economy/ Drug Trade and Crack Cocaine
  • The War on Drugs and Rise of Mass Incarceration
  • The Modern Ghetto: Concentrated Poverty
    • Discrimination in Housing and Job Market
    • Education: Seperate and Unequal Fifty Years after Brown v. Board of Education
    • Health Care: Sick and Poor (prior to Obamacare)
    • Prison Industry: the remaining anti-poverty program
    • Working Poor: Employment in McJobs: mimimum wage vs. living wage