1. How did Galileo’s discoveries change our understanding of the nature of the heavens? (Why did the Church threaten to torture him unless he recanted?)
  2. How did the philosophes apply Newton’s discovery of universal laws governing motion to the problems of society and government?
  3. What are the key features of the emerging modern state?
  4. What is Hobbes’ version of the social contract?
  5. What was Locke’s conception of the social contact? (When did he believe citizens had the responsibility to rebel?)

Extra Credit:
  1. How does Locke’s epistemology refute the Church’s idea of original sin and encourage an Enlightened faith  in progress?