|1. A "glut of capital" earned during the Industrial Revolution financed
the rapid military conquest of new territories in Africa and Asia which provided
- new sources of cheap labor,
- abundant and cheap natural resources for factories
- captive markets in which to
sell manufactured goods.
2. The invention of modern "weapons of empire" made the
Europeans impossible to resist militarily.
| the iron battle
ship, the railroad, and the Gatling Gun
3. Intense competition for world markets led to a land rush for
territory and to establish key military bases.
Austria, Russia, and the new comers: Germany, Italy, and the United
4. The political ambitions of individual leaders drove imperialist
|Cecil Rhodes of England and South Africa, Alexander II of
Russia, Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany, King Leopold of Belgium, William
McKinley of USA
5. The propagandizing of intellectuals, economists, and patriotic publicists
anxious to use the idea of European superiority to justify conquest.
|Christian Missionaries, Liberal Administrators, Social Darwinists, Nietzschean
The Berlin Conference of 1884:
"spheres of influence” defined to bring some order to the imperial
land rush in Africa: any power that effectively occupied African territory and duly notified the other powers could thereby establish possession of it. The treaty was, in short, a compact among the powers to pursue the further partition of Africa as amicably as possible; and an attempt to separate colonial competition from European rivalries.