Quiz on Modern Consciousness: Nietzsche, Freud, Darwin, Marx
did intellectuals in the late nineteenth century begin to doubt that
history was naturally progressing towards a harmonious state?
- Why did Nietzsche believe that Christian morality’s stress on love, compassion and pity was harmful to man?
- Define Nietzsche’s conception of ‘the superman’ who would rescue European culture from Christianity.
- According to Nietzsche, who wins the struggle for dominance in society? Why?
- According to Freud, what forces drive human behavior?
- How did Freud believe that we could probe the unconscious?
- What is “the id” and what does it want?
- Why did Freud believe that neurosis was unavoidable for civilized man?
- Until Darwin published his theories, what did people believe was the origin of the various species on earth?
- Define the argument according to design to prove the existence of God.
- How does the natural selection of certain inherited traits lead to the development of whole new species?
- What controversial aspects of Darwin’s theories do we still have trouble accepting?
- From which philosophical movement do both liberalism and Marxism derive?
- How do liberals and Marxists differ in their methods of achieving social justice?
- Carefully explain how Marx uses the term “dialectical materialism” to describe his theory of historical progress.